الرئيسية - اسلاميات - ما هي الاعذار المانعة للصوم ؟

ما هي الاعذار المانعة للصوم ؟

ما هي الاعذار المانعة للصوم ؟

ما هي الاعذار المانعة للصوم؟
ما هي الاعذار المانعة للصوم؟

فقد أمرنا الله تعالى بالصيام، إذ قال: (ياأيها الذين آمنوا كتب عليكم الصيام كما كتب على الذين من قبلكم لعلكم تتقون (183)، وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: (بني الإسلام على خمس: شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله، وأن محمدا رسول الله ، وإقام الصلاة، وإيتاء الزكاة، وحج البيت، وصوم رمضان ) رواه البخاري ومسلم، ولكن هذه العبادة العظيمة ألا وهي صوم رمضان لها شروط فلكي يجب الصوم لا بدّ من:

– البلوغ: لا يجب الصوم على الصبي ولو كان مراهقاً، لقول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: “رفع القلم عن ثلاثة: الصبي حتى يحتلم والنائم حتى يستيقظ والمجنون حتى يفيق”. أخرجه أحمد وأبو داود، ولكن يجب على ولي الصبي المميز أمره بالصوم إذا أطاقه.

– القدرة: لا يجب على العاجز عنه لكبر أو مرض، لقول الله تعالى: (وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ) [البقرة:184].

– الإقامة: فلا يجب على المسافر بل له أن يفطر ويقضي، لقول الله تعالى: (فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضاً أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ) [البقرة:184].

كما أن للصوم شروط صحية وهي:

– النية: لقول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: “إنما الأعمال بالنيات”. متفق عليه، وتكون من الليل لقول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: “من لم يبيت الصيام من الليل فلا صيام له”. رواه أبو داود والنسائي.

– التمييز: فلا يصح من الصبي غير المميز لعدم علمه بمقصد العبادات ومعناها.

– الزمان القابل للصوم: فلا يصح في الأيام المحرمة كيوم العيد.

وتوجد شروط وجوب وصحة معاً، فلا يجب الصوم ولا يصح بدونها:

– الإسلام: فالكافر الأصلي والمرتد عمله غير مقبول، لقول الله تعالى: (لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ) [الزمر:65].

– العقل: فالقلم مرفوع عن المجنون، للحديث السابق: “رفع القلم عن ثلاثة……………والمجنون حتى يفيق”.

– الطهارة من دم الحيض والنفاس أو الخلو عن الأعذار المانعة من الصوم: فالحائض والنفساء يحرم عليهما الصيام ويجب عليهما القضاء، لقول عائشة رضي الله عنها: “كنا نحيض على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فنؤمر بقضاء الصيام ولا نؤمر بقضاء الصلاة”.

لأن الأعذار المانعة من الصوم هي:

أ. التلبس بالحيض أو النفاس جزءا من أجزاء النهار.ب. الإغماء أو الجنون المطبِق بياض اليوم كلِّه، فإن أفاق ولو لحظة من النهار سقط العذر، ووجب الإمساك بقية اليوم، فلا يصح الصوم في حال التلبس بأي عذر من الأعذار السابقة ولا ينعقد، وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين، وآخر دعوانا أن الحمد لله رب العالمين.

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